By R. Tom. Lehigh Univervsity.
Tetrabenazine sevelamer 400mg visa, the dopamine-depletng drug order sevelamer 400 mg on line, is used to control movement disor- ders in Huntngton’s chorea and related disorders order sevelamer 800mg mastercard. Tics: Tics which resemble choreiform movements are commonly associated with anxiety. However, in the more complex multple tc disorder, Tourete syndrome, treatment with antpsychotc drugs may be required. Tardive Dyskinesia: It is associated with chronic administraton of antpsychotc drugs. It is characterized by involuntary, repettve, choreiform movement of the cheek, mouth and fngers. The frst step of treatment should always be discontnuaton of the antpsy- chotc drug or dosage reducton if the underlying psychotc disorder permits. Dose Oral Adult- Medicine-induced extra-pyramidal symptoms, parkinsonism: initally 1 mg twice daily, increased gradually to 2 mg thrice daily; usual maintenance dose 3 to 12 mg daily in divided doses. Intramuscular injecton or Slow intravenous injecton Adult- Medicine-induced extra-pyramidal symptoms, parkinsonism: 2. Contraindicatons Angle-closure glaucoma; bowel obstructon; megacolon; untreated urinary retenton; prostatc hypertrophy; myasthenia gravis; gastrointestnal obstructon. Precautons Elderly; cardiovascular disease, hepatc or renal impairment; avoid abrupt withdrawal; paediatric use; pregnancy (Appendix 7c); lactaton. May impair ability to perform skilled tasks, for example operatng machinery, driving. Adverse Efects Drowsiness, dry mouth, constpaton, blurred vision; hesitancy of micturiton, dizziness, tachycardia, arrhythmias; confusion, euphoria, excitement, agitaton, hallucinatons and psychiatric disturbances with high dosage, especially in the elderly and other susceptble patents, may require withdrawal of treatment; impaired memory, mild postural hypotension; urinary retenton. Contraindicatons Hypersensitvity to bromocriptne or other ergot alkaloids; ischaemic heart disease; toxaemia of pregnancy and hypertension in postpartum women or in puerperium. Should not be used postpartum or in puerperium in women with high blood pressure, coronary artery disease or symptoms (or history) of serious mental disorder; monitor blood pressure carefully (especially during frst few days) in postpartum women. Very rarely, hypertension, myocardial infarcton, seizures or stroke (both sometmes preceded by severe headache or visual disturbances) and mental disorders have been reported in postpartum women given bromocriptne for lactaton suppression-cauton with anthypertensive therapy and avoid other ergot alkaloids. Levodopa + Carbidopa* Pregnancy Category-C Schedule H Indicatons All forms of parkinsonism other than medicine-induced. Dose Oral Adult- Parkinsonism: expressed in terms of levodopa, initally 100 mg (with carbidopa 10 mg) twice daily, increased by 100 mg (with carbidopa 10 mg) every few days as necessary, to a max. Optmum daily dose must be determined for each patent by careful monitoring and be taken afer meals. Contraindicatons Concurrent use of monoamine oxidase inhibitors; undiagnosed chin lesion; lactaton; psychosis; decompensated endocrine; angle- closure glaucoma; confrmed or suspected malignant melanoma. Adverse Efects Nausea, anorexia and vomitng, partcularly at the start of treatment; postural hypotension at the start of treatment, partcularly in elderly and those receiving anthypertensives; excessive drowsiness and sudden onset of sleep (warn patent of these efects); confusion, vivid dreams, dizziness, tachycardia, arrhythmias; reddish discolouraton of body fuids; insomnia, headache, fushing, gastrointestnal bleeding, peripheral neuropathy; taste disturbances, pruritus, rash, liver enzyme changes; psychiatric symptoms including psychosis, depression, hallucinatons, delusions and neurological disturbances including dyskinesias may be dose-limitng; painful dystonic spasms (‘end-of-dose’ efects) and (‘on-of’ efects) afer prolonged treatment (see notes above); neuroleptc malignant syndrome, on sudden withdrawal; rarely, hypersensitvity, dyspnoea; upper respiratory infecton. Dose 1 mg daily, increased gradually; usual maintenance dose 5 to 15 mg daily in 3 to 4 divided doses (max. Precautons Use with cauton in cardiovascular disease, hypertension, psychotc disorders, prostatc hypertrophy, pyrexia, in those susceptble to angle-closure glaucoma and in the elderly. Elderly males with possible prostate hypertrophy; tardive dyskinesia; neuroleptc malignant syndrome. Use with cauton in renal impairment and hepatc impairment, lactaton and interactons (Appendix 6a). Adverse Efects Constpaton, dry mouth, nausea, vomitng, tachycardia, dizziness, confusion, euphoria, hallucinatons, impaired memory, anxiety, restlessness, urinary retenton, blurred vision and rash. The drug of choice will depend on the primary diagnosis, seizure type, efcacy of the drug and the patent’s tolerance of treatment. If a drug fails to control the seizures afer it has been used in full thera- peutc dosage for an adequate period, or if it is not tolerated, it should be gradually substtuted with another drug, with the frst drug being withdrawn only when the new regimen is established. If monotherpy is inefectve, next alternatve drug should be started, and try to withdraw frst drug if there was no response for that drug or contnue with that if there was partal response for inital drug. Inital dose of the drug of choice should be determined on the basis of the degree of urgency, the size and age of the patent. All antepileptcs commonly produce neurological adverse efects at higher dose ranges and patents should be monitored closely for adverse efects to help in accurate dose ttraton. Except for phenytoin, it is rarely, useful to measure plasma-drug concentratons as an aid to dose adjust- ment. Non-compliance, inappropriate dosing and overdosing is a major impediment to efectve antepileptc treatment. Withdrawal: Treatment is normally contnued for a minimum of two years of seizure free period. Withdrawal should be extended over a period of several months because abrupt withdrawal can lead to recurrence of seizure and or/status epileptcus. A general rule for duraton of tapering is how many years patent had taken that partcular drug, over a period of so many months it should be tapered. In patents receiving several antepileptc drugs, only one drug should be withdrawn at a tme. Pregnancy and Lactaton: Untreated epilepsy during pregnancy may cause harm to the fetus; there is therefore no justfcaton for abrupt with- drawal of treatment although withdrawal of therapy may be an opton if the patent has been seizure-free for at least 2 years; resumpton of treatment may be considered afer the frst trimester. If antepileptcs are contnued in pregnancy, monotherapy with the lowest efectve dose is preferred, with adjustment made to take account of changes in plasma levels associated with pregnancy. There is an increased risk of birth defects with the use of antconvulsants, partcularly carbamazepine, valproate and phenytoin. However, if there is good seizure control, there is probably no advantage in changing pregnant patents’ antepileptc drugs. In view of the risks of neural tube and other defects, patents who may become pregnant should be informed of the risks and referred for advice and pregnant patents should be ofered counselling and antenatal screening. To counteract the risk of neural tube defects, adequate folate supplements are advised for women before and during pregnancy.
Advice to patient • Avoid driving and other activities requiring mental alertness or that are potentially dangerous until response to drug is known discount 400mg sevelamer amex. If this occurs generic sevelamer 800mg with mastercard, use extra blankets only buy cheap sevelamer 800mg, not hot water bottle, heating pad, or electric blanket. Symptoms of this condition include red, dry skin, dyspnea, strong pulse, body temperature above 105°F (40. Other symptoms of withdrawal include abdominal discomfort, dizziness, headache, tachycardia, insomnia. Patient should remain in recumbent position for at least 30 minutes following injection. At first indication of tardive dyskinesia— vermicular movements of tongue—withdraw drug imme- diately. Tardive dyskinesia generally develops several months after treatment with a phenothiazine. Patient should be moni- tored every 6 months for possible development of tardive dyskinesia. If con- trol is lost, it may be necessary to discontinue the drug and substitute another. Adverse ocular reactions include increased intraocular pressure, particle deposition in the cornea and lens, which may lead to venticular opacities, blurred vision, photophobia, ptosis. Editorial comments: Phenothiazines have been a mainstay of treatment for psychosis. Class of drug: Progestational hormone, contraceptive, increases endometrial receptivity for embryo implantation. Warnings/precautions • Use with caution in patients with respiratory infection, history of depression, epilepsy, migraine, cardiac disease, renal disease, diabetes. Advice to patient • Weigh yourself twice a week and report to treating physician if there are any unusual changes in weight. Adverse reactions • Common: irregular or unpredictable menstrual bleeding (spot- ting), amenorrhea, breakthrough bleeding, infertility for up to 18 months. Clinically important drug interactions: Drugs that decrease effects/ toxicity of progestins: aminoglutethimide, phenytoin, rifampin. Editorial comments • Patient receiving a progesterone for contraceptive purposes should have a complete physical examination performed with special attention to breasts and pelvic organs as well as a Pap test before treatment and annually thereafter. If a patient expe- riences persistent or abnormal vaginal bleeding while on this drug, perform diagnostic tests including endometrial sampling, to determine cause. Do not use in children showing signs and symptoms of Reye’s syndrome or other hepatic disease. Editorial comments • Use of promethazine in children is limited to prolonged vom- iting of known origin. Onset of Action Peak Effect Duration 1 h 2–3 h 8–12 h Food: May be taken with or without food. Warnings/precautions • Use with caution in patients with kidney or liver disease, heart failure. Advice to patient • Avoid driving and other activities requiring mental alertness or that are potentially dangerous until response to drug is known. Clinically important drug interactions • Propafanone increases effects/toxicity of digoxin, β blockers, local anesthetics, warfarin, cyclosporine. Editorial comments • Because propafanone pharmacokintetics are very complex, it is necessary to individualize the dosage for each patient. Treatment is supportive, ie, administration of fluids, anticonvulsants, and antiarrhyth- mics. Mechanism of action: Blocks acetylcholine effects at muscarinic receptors throughout the body. Mechanism of action: Binds to opioid receptors and blocks ascending pain pathways. Warnings/precautions • Use with caution in patients with head injury with increased intracranial pressure, serious alcoholism, prostatic hypertro- phy, chronic pulmonary disease, severe liver or kidney disease, disorders of biliary tract, and in postoperative patients with pulmonary disease, suicidal or addiction-prone patients. If nausea and vomiting persist, it may be necessary to administer an antiemetic, eg, droperidol or prochlorperazine. Editorial comments • Proproxyphene increases plasma levels of the following drugs: carbamazepine, warfarin, tricyclic antidepressants. Mechanism of action: Competitive blocker of β-adrenergic receptors in heart and blood vessels. If necessary to dis- continue, taper as follows: Reduce dose and reassess after 1–2 weeks. Clinically important drug interactions • Drugs that increase effects/toxicity of β blockers: reserpine, bretylium, calcium channel blockers. If hypotension occurs despite correction of bradycardia, administer vasopressor (norephinephrine, dopa- mine, or dobutamine). Stop therapy and administer large doses of β-adrenergic bronchodilator, eg, albuterol, terbutaline, or aminophylline. Some advocate discontinuing the drug 48 hours before surgery; others recommend withdrawal for a considerably longer time. These are drugs of first choice for chronic stable angina in conjunction with nitroglycerin. Mechanism of action: Inhibits synthesis of thyroid hormones; blocks thyroid gland oxidation of iodine. Adjustment of dosage • Kidney disease: Creatinine clearance 10–50 mL/min: 75% of normal dose; creatinine clearance <10 mL/min, 50% of normal dose. Onset of Action Peak Effect Duration 24–36 h 2–10 wk — Food: May be taken with food. Warnings/precautions: Use with extreme caution in patients receiving other drugs that are potentially able to cause agranu- locytosis, kidney disease, elderly.
With high-performance liquid chromatography assays specific for teniposide sevelamer 800 mg free shipping, urinary excretion accounted for only 4–14% of the dose up to 24 h (Rossi et al buy 400mg sevelamer amex. Teniposide was detected in one patient who died three days after a cumulative intra- venous dose of 576 mg generic 400mg sevelamer free shipping, the highest concentrations occurring in the spleen, prostate, heart, large bowel, liver and pancreas. Teniposide was not detected in any tissue from four patients who died 5–52 days (median, eight days) after their last treatment with teniposide, for a cumulative dose of 234–1577 mg, indicating a relatively short tissue half-time (Stewart et al. In one patient in whom serial cerebrospinal fluid and plasma samples were collected after administration of teniposide at doses up to 1000 mg/m2, the concentrations of the drug in eight samples of cerebrospinal fluid were only 0. Teniposide was not detected in samples of cerebrospinal fluid collected 97–740 min after dosing of patients with 100–150 mg/m2 intravenously (Zucchetti et al. These results are in line with the reported protein binding of teniposide of 99% or higher (Allen & Creaven, 1975; Evans et al. The binding of the drug to protein decreased with decreasing serum albumin concen- tration and increasing bilirubin concentration, with a resultant increase in free drug, from 0. Conversely, concurrent administration of phenytoin increased the clearance rate of teniposide to 32 mL/min per m2 from 13 mL/min per m2 for control patients (Baker et al. The oral bioavailability of teniposide was around 40% at doses of 60 and 120 mg/m2, and 29% at a dose of 250 mg/m2, with marked differences among patients (Splinter et al. A similar, rapid distribution half-time of about 2 min was observed for both drugs. Studies of cellular uptake suggested that the passage of teniposide into leukaemic cells in culture was linear up to 5 min and reached a steady state by 20 min, the intra- cellular concentrations being about 20 times higher than the extracellular concen- trations. Other authors have reported greater cellular accumulation of teniposide than etoposide at the same extracellular concentration of the two drugs in Lewis lung carci- noma cells in vitro, with intracellular concentrations of 1. Although few published data are available on the metabolism of teniposide in experimental systems, it appears to be similar to that of etoposide (see section 4. In isolated human liver preparations, cytochrome P450 mixed-function isozymes catalysed metabolism of the (pendant) E-ring to O-deme- thylated and catechol metabolites (Relling et al. Peroxidase-mediated O-demethylation of teniposide has also been reported (Haim et al. With the more commonly used five-day regime (30–60 mg/m2 per day), bone-marrow suppression was the dose-limiting toxic effect, with leukopenia reported in 28–38% of patients and thrombocytopenia in 7–30%. The lowest blood counts typically occurred around day 10, with recovery by day 21. Nausea and vomiting were reported as mild, occurring in up to 20% of patients, with occasional reports of diarrhoea. Less common toxic effects in this group included increased liver enzyme activity (11 patients), acute hypotension (10 patients), fever (six patients) and anaphylaxis (five patients). More recent studies of patients given 50–80 mg/m2 per day for five days confirmed these findings, haematological effects occurring most commonly. Episodes of nausea, vomiting and diarrhoea occurred occasionally but were generally mild, and some degree of alopecia was observed in most patients. Less common effects in these studies included transient increases in liver enzyme activity, anaphylaxis, hypotension and hypertension, which in one study was attributed to the vegetable oil base used in the formulation (Oishi et al. Single doses of 100 mg/m2 given once weekly are gener- ally less toxic (Tirelli et al. Because of the reports of hypotension and anaphylaxis in the early studies, reports of 82 hypersensitivity reactions in 2250 patients (3. Of these reactions, 45% occurred in patients with neuroblastoma or brain tumour, a much higher incidence than in patients with other tumour types. These reactions are manifest as respiratory difficulty, changes in blood pressure, urticaria and flushing. These patients also developed an intensely pruritic erythematous rash with purpura four to seven days after the start of chemotherapy, which involved the upper part of the chest and the upper part of the legs. The rash cleared spontaneously within one week and, in two patients who were treated again at 500 mg/m2, no rash occurred. In the one patient who received a second dose of 1000 mg/m2, paraesthesia and an abnormal electromyography were seen (de Vries et al. In one study, the intravenous formulation was tested orally after dilution in 100 mL of syrup or orange juice (Smit et al. Several patients retched during administration, 12 received antiemetics, and vomiting persisted in five patients. The dose-limiting toxic effect was myelosuppression, and gastrointestinal toxicity was also common. At equitoxic doses, the two drugs had equivalent anti-tumour activity in a murine tumour model in vivo (Jensen et al. The infant was fully developed and normal in all respects, the examinations including electrocardiography and blood counts. Injection on day 8 caused no embryo- toxicity or effect on fetal body weight at the low and intermediate doses, but the frequencies of embryolethality and fetal malformations were increased at 1. Teniposide was considerably more embryotoxic and teratogenic than etoposide, which was also included in this investigation (see the monograph on eto- poside). The commonest malformations observed at the highest dose were dextro- cardia, seen in 9. A second case of treatment-related acute lymphoblastic leukaemia with t(4;11) was reported after primary treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia with a teniposide-containing regimen (Brizard et al. Teniposide has been used most often in the treatment of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, sometimes in com- bination with etoposide; the observations of specific leukaemia-associated chromo- somal translocations in this situation, most of which involve chromosome band 11q23, are described in the monograph on etoposide (see also Pui et al. Cytogenetic studies were performed in six cases, and translocations of chromosome band 11q23 were observed in two of these. In one case, the treatment-related leukaemia was acute lymphoblastic leukaemia with t(4;11)(q21;q23).
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