By E. Agenak. Washington & Lee University.
Involvement in interpersonal activities and explana- tion of the actual situation may bring the client back to reality purchase 0.1mg florinef fast delivery. Client is able to differentiate between reality and unrealistic events or situations discount 0.1 mg florinef otc. Long-term Goal Client will demonstrate use of appropriate interaction skills as evidenced by lack of florinef 0.1 mg on line, or marked decrease in, manipulation of others to fulﬁll own desires. Recognize the purpose these behaviors serve for the client: to reduce feelings of insecurity by increasing feelings of power and control. Understanding the motivation behind the ma- nipulation may facilitate acceptance of the individual and his or her behavior. Explain to client what you expect and what the consequences are if the limits are violated. Unless administration of consequences for violation of limits is consistent, manipulative behavior will not be eliminated. Explore feelings, and help the client seek more appropriate ways of dealing with them. Positive reinforcement enhances self-esteem and promotes repetition of desirable behaviors. Help client recognize consequences of own behaviors and refrain from attributing them to others. Client must accept responsibil- ity for own behaviors before adaptive change can occur. Help client identify positive aspects about self, recognize accomplishments, and feel good about them. As self-esteem is increased, client will feel less need to manipulate others for own gratiﬁcation. Long-term Goal By time of discharge from treatment, client will be able to acquire 6 to 8 hours of uninterrupted sleep without sleeping medication. Hyperactivity increases and ability to achieve sleep and rest are hindered in a stimulating environment. Provide structured schedule of activ- ities that includes established times for naps or rest. Accurate baseline data are important in planning care to help client with this problem. A structured schedule, including time for naps, will help the hyperactive client achieve much- needed rest. Observe for signs such as increasing restlessness, ﬁne tremors, slurred speech, and puffy, dark circles under eyes. Client can collapse from exhaustion if hyperactivity is uninterrupted and rest is not achieved. Before bedtime, provide nursing measures that promote sleep, such as back rub; warm bath; warm, nonstimulating drinks; soft music; and relaxation exercises. Administer sedative medications, as ordered, to assist client achieve sleep until normal sleep pattern is restored. Client is dealing openly with fears and feelings rather than manifesting denial of them through hyperactivity. Anxiety disorders are categorized in the following manner: Panic Disorder (with or without Agoraphobia) Panic disorder is characterized by recurrent panic attacks, the onset of which are unpredictable, and manifested by intense apprehension, fear, or terror, often associated with feelings of impending doom, and accompanied by intense physical discom- fort. Common agoraphobic sit- uations include being outside the home alone; being in a crowd or standing in a line; being on a bridge; and traveling in a bus, train, or car. Travel is restricted or the individual needs a companion when away from home or else endures agoraphobic situations despite intense anxiety. Social Phobia Social phobia is characterized by a persistent fear of behaving or performing in the presence of others in a way that will be humiliating or embarrassing to the individual. Exposure to the pho- bic situation is avoided, or it is endured with intense anxiety. Common social phobias include speaking or writing in front of a group of people, eating in the presence of others, and using public restrooms. Speciﬁc Phobia Formerly called simple phobia, this disorder is characterized by persistent fears of speciﬁc objects or situations. These phobias are fairly widespread among the general population, the most common being fear of animals (zoophobia), fear of closed places (claustrophobia), and fear of heights (acrophobia). Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder This disorder is characterized by involuntary recurring thoughts or images that the individual is unable to ignore and by recur- ring impulse to perform a seemingly purposeless activity. These obsessions and compulsions serve to prevent extreme anxiety on the part of the individual. The stressor, which would be considered markedly distressing to almost anyone, has usu- ally been experienced with intense fear, terror, and helplessness. If duration of the symptoms is 3 months or longer, the diagnosis is speciﬁed as “chronic. The major difference in the diagnoses lies in the length of time the symptoms exist. With acute stress disorder, the symptoms must subside within 4 weeks of occurrence of the stressor. Generalized Anxiety Disorder This disorder is characterized by chronic, unrealistic, and exces- sive anxiety and worry.
Study Guide for Fundamentals of Nursing: The Art and Science of Nursing Care cheap florinef 0.1mg overnight delivery, 7th Edition generic 0.1 mg florinef visa. They reﬂect the color of normal granula- edges of the wound to appear normal and tion tissue discount florinef 0.1mg mastercard. The wound should not feel hot upon wound and using wet-to-moist dressings palpation. Incisional pain during wound healing is medication to decrease the growth of usually most severe for the ﬁrst 3 to 5 days bacteria. They are usually treated by using sharp, the proper use of the various types of mechanical, or chemical débridement. A Surgipad is often used to cover an describe a factor in the development of a incision line directly. Op-Site is often used over intravenous uted over a small area without much sub- sites, subclavian catheter insertion sites, cutaneous tissue. Gauze dressings are commonly used to within the ﬁrst 2 days in a person who has cover wounds. The major predisposing factor for a pressure drainage from passing through and being ulcer is internal pressure applied over an absorbed by the outer layer. Which of the following interventions might laries and poor circulation to the tissues. The skin can tolerate considerable pressure ing competent care for a patient with a drain- without cell death, but for short periods ing wound? The duration of pressure, compared to the 45 minutes before changing the dressing, amount of pressure, plays a larger role in if necessary. Study Guide for Fundamentals of Nursing: The Art and Science of Nursing Care, 7th Edition. Change cold compresses frequently, con- tinuing the application for 1 hour, and re- 9. Which of the following would be appropriate peating the application every 2 to 3 hours actions for the nurse to take when cleaning as ordered. In a home setting, use a bag of frozen veg- change using aggressive motions to etables (such as peas), if desired, as a sub- remove necrotic tissue. The application of heat decreases tissue or open separate swab and remove cap metabolism. Extensive, prolonged heat increases cardiac rubber band or place tube in plastic bag output and pulse rate. Apply an ice bag for 1 hour and then re- to secure; if using Culturette tube, crush move it for about an hour before reapply- ampule of medium at bottom of tube. Study Guide for Fundamentals of Nursing: The Art and Science of Nursing Care, 7th Edition. The partial or total disruption of wound incision are caused by an accumulation of layers. In the inﬂammatory cellular phase of a of ﬁbroblasts and small blood vessels wound, or cells that ﬁll an open wound when it starts arrive ﬁrst to ingest bacteria and cellular to heal debris. The protrusion of viscera through the vascular, bleeds easily, and is formed in the incisional area proliferative phase is known as tissue. Composed of ﬂuid and cells that escape from the blood vessels and are deposited 5. An abnormal passage from an internal organ in or on tissue surfaces to the skin or from one internal organ to another is known as a(n). Anchoring a bandage by wrapping it around clear, serous portion of the blood and the body part with complete overlapping of drainage from serous membranes the previous bandage turn is the method of bandage wrapping. Ischemia debris, and both dead and live bacteria Copyright © 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Study Guide for Fundamentals of Nursing: The Art and Science of Nursing Care, 7th Edition. Applied directly over a small wound oozing from the tissue covering the or tube, these dressings are occlusive, wound, often accompanied by purulent decreasing the possibility of contamina- drainage tion while allowing visualization of the wound. A disruption in the normal integrity of muslin) or an elasticized material that the skin fastens together with Velcro. The type of dressing often used over sweat, grow hair, or tan in sunlight intravenous sites, subclavian catheter 15. Give an example of how the following factors material used to wrap a body part affect the likelihood that a patient will develop a pressure ulcer. A special gauze that covers the incision line and allows drainage to pass through a. Mental status: come in various sizes and are commer- cially packaged as single units or in packs. Placed over the smaller gauze to absorb drainage and protect the wound from contamination or injury f. Precut halfway to ﬁt around drains or tubes Copyright © 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Study Guide for Fundamentals of Nursing: The Art and Science of Nursing Care, 7th Edition. Activity/mobility: stroke in her home, you notice a pressure ulcer developing on her coccyx. Develop a nursing care plan for this patient that involves the family in the treatment of the d.
The most commonly implicated foods include wheat florinef 0.1 mg with visa, dairy order florinef 0.1 mg without prescription, sugar purchase florinef 0.1 mg mastercard, and artiﬁcial sweeteners. Following an elimina- tion diet (see Appendix D) and using a food and symptom diary can help determine which foods should be avoided. Top Recommended Supplements Digestive enzymes: Help improve food digestion and reduce bloating and gas. Look for a full-spectrum enzyme that contains proteolytic enzymes, lipase and amylase. Flaxseed: Ground ﬂaxseed contains insoluble and insoluble ﬁbres that help reduce consti- pation and promote bowel regularity. Peppermint: Contains oils that directly affect the smooth muscle of the digestive tract and reduce spasms. Several studies have found it helpful for reducing pain, bloating, stool frequency, and gas. Take one to three capsules of peppermint oil three times daily, about 15 minutes before meals. Dosage: one capsule (providing at least 1 billion viable cells), two or three times daily with food. Look for a product that is stable at room tempera- ture with guaranteed potency, such as Kyo-Dophilus. Those taking ﬂaxseed had signiﬁcantly fewer problems with constipation, abdominal pain, and bloating than those taking psyllium. The ﬂaxseed group had even further im- provements in constipation and bloating while continuing their treatment in the three months after the double-blind study ended. The researcher concluded that ﬂaxseed re- lieved constipation more effectively than psyllium (Gastroenterology, 1997: 112; A836). Complementary Supplements Evening primrose oil: Contains gamma linolenic acid, a fatty acid that helps reduce inﬂam- mation. Melatonin: Plays a role in the regulation of gastrointestinal function and sensation. Avoid caffeine, alcohol, carbonated beverages, fatty or spicy foods, and other known food triggers. The main function of the kidneys is to remove excess ﬂuid and wastes from your blood in the form of urine. Kidney stones, known medically as renal lithiasis, occur when minerals and other substances in the urine form crystals inside your kidneys. Crystals can form in the urine when there is a high concentration of substances such as calcium, oxalate, uric acid, and, rarely, cystinem, or phosphate, or a low level of substances that help prevent crystal formation, such as citrate and magnesium. Crystals also may form if your urine becomes too concen- trated or is too acidic or too alkaline. However, in some cases, these stones can be large and cause excruciating pain and bleeding in the urine, and even permanent damage. Fortunately, there are a number of medical interventions and natural products that can help eliminate kidney stones, as well as lifestyle measures that can be undertaken to prevent them from occurring. Roughly 70–80 percent of all kidney stones contain a combination of calcium and oxa- late. Some people have higher levels of calcium K in their urine than others, increasing the risk of stone formation. Calcium levels may also be higher in those with cancer, kidney disease, or those taking certain diuretics and thyroid hormones. It was once thought that a diet high in calcium increased your risk for developing kidney stones, but this has been disproven. Oxalates are compounds naturally occurring in some fruits and vegetables, such as rhubarb, spinach, and tomatoes. Small kidney stones can partially block the ureters (thin tubes that connect each kidney to the bladder) or the urethra (tube that carries urine out of the body). If left untreated, these stones may also cause recurrent urinary tract infection or kidney damage. In some cases, a small stone can easily be passed by drinking lots of water (half a gallon to three-quarters of a gallon) and being physically active. Stones that are too large to pass or causing bleeding, infection, or kidney damage may require treatment by an urologist, a doctor who specializes in the treatment of urinary tract problems. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy involves removal of the stone through a small incision in your back using a nephroscope. A stone that is lodged in a ureter can be broken down with ultrasound or laser energy and removed with a small instrument called an ureteroscope. Depending on the type of stone, there are medications that can be used to change the pH of your urine to prevent and treat the problem. Lemon contains citric acid, which acidiﬁes the urine and can help assist the passage of calcium oxalate stones. Foods to avoid: • Foods high in oxalic acid increase the risk of stone formation, so minimize intake of spin- ach, rhubarb, beet greens, nuts, chocolate, tea, bran, almonds, peanuts, and strawberries. Other foods contain some oxalic acid, but only these have been found to be a problem. Animal protein increases the excretion of calcium, causing a buildup of calcium in the urine. Foods high in sodium include snack foods, deli meats, condiments, and processed foods. Soft drinks also contain phosphoric acid, which also increases the risk of stones.
For example cheap 0.1 mg florinef, some studies have used coding frames such as the Stiles verbal response mode system (Stiles 1978) or the Roter index (Roter et al discount florinef 0.1 mg without a prescription. In contrast discount florinef 0.1mg on-line, other studies have used interviews with patients and doctors (Henbest and Stewart 1990) whilst some have used behavioural checklists (Byrne and Long 1976). Complicat- ing the matter further, research studies exploring the doctor patient interaction and the literature proposing a particular form of interaction have used a wide range of diﬀerent but related terms such as shared decision making (Elwyn et al. However, although varying in their operationalization of patient centredness, in general the con- struct is considered to consist of three central components; namely (i) a receptiveness by the doctor to the patient’s opinions and expectations and an eﬀort to see the illness through the patient’s eyes; (ii) patient involvement in the decision making and planning of treatment; and (iii) an attention to the aﬀective content of the consultation in terms of the emotions of both the patient and the doctor. This framework comparable to the six interactive components described by Levenstein and colleagues (Levenstein et al. Finally, it is explicitly described by Wineﬁeld and colleagues in their work comparing the eﬀectiveness of diﬀerent measures (Wineﬁeld et al. Patient centredness is now the way in which consultations are supposed to be managed. It emphasizes negotiation between doctor and patient and places the interaction between the two as central. In line with this approach, research has explored the relationship between health professional and patient with an emphasis not on either the health professional or the patient but on the interaction between the two in the following ways: the level of agreement between health professional and patient and the impact of this agreement on patient outcome. Agreement between health professional and patient If health professional–patient communication is seen as an interaction between two individuals then it is important to understand the extent to which these two individuals speak the same language, share the same beliefs and agree as to the desired content and outcome of any consultation. This is of particular relevance to general practice con- sultations where patient and health professional perspectives are most likely to coincide. For the treatment of obesity, a similar pattern emerged with the two groups reporting similar beliefs for a range of methods, but showing diﬀerent beliefs about who was most helpful. Research has also shown that doctors and patients diﬀer in their beliefs about the role of the doctor (Ogden et al. If the health professional–patient communication is seen as an interaction, then these studies suggest that it may well be an interaction between two individuals with very diﬀerent perspectives. The role of agreement in patient outcomes If doctors and patients have diﬀerent beliefs about illness, diﬀerent beliefs about the role of the doctor and about medicines, does this lack of agreement relate to patient out- comes? It is possible that such disagreement may result in poor compliance to medication (‘why should I take antidepressants if I am not depressed? Therefore, further research is needed to develop methodological and theoretical approaches to the con- sultation as an interaction. In addition, research is needed to explore whether the nature of the interaction and the level of the agreement between health professional and patient predicts patient outcomes. The relationship between health professionals and patients was seen as the communication of expert medical knowledge from an objective professional to a subjective layperson. Within this framework, Ley’s model explained failures in communication in the context of the failure to comply in terms of patient factors, including patient’s satisfaction, lack of understanding, or lack of recall. In addition, methods to improve the communica- tion focused on the health professional’s ability to communicate this factual knowledge to the patient. However, recent research has highlighted variability in the behaviours of health professionals that cannot simply be explained in terms of diﬀerences in knowledge. This variability can be examined in terms of the processes involved in clinical decision making by the health professional and in particular the factors that inﬂuence the development of hypotheses. This variability has also been examined within the context of health beliefs, and it is argued that the division between professional and lay beliefs may be a simpliﬁcation, with health professionals holding both professional and lay beliefs; health professionals have beliefs that are individual to them in the way that patients have their own individual beliefs. However, perhaps to further conceptualize the communication process, it is important to understand not only the health pro- fessional’s preconceived ideas/prejudices/stereotypes/lay beliefs/professional beliefs or the patient’s beliefs, but to consider the processes involved in any communication between health professional and patient as an interaction that occurs in the context of these beliefs. Discuss the content of the consultation and think about how the health professional’s health beliefs may have inﬂuenced this. Health psychology attempts to challenge the biomedical model of health and illness. However, perhaps by emphasizing the mind (attitudes, cognitions, beliefs) as a separate entity, the mind–body split is not challenged but reinforced. Challenging the biomedical model also involves questioning some of the outcomes used by medicine. For example, compliance with recommenda- tions for drug-taking, accuracy of recall, changing health behaviours following advice are all established desired outcomes. Health psychology accepts these out- comes by examining ways in which communication can be improved, variability can be understood and reduced and compliance promoted. However, again, accepting these outcomes as legitimate is also a way of supporting biomedicine. Perhaps inaccuracy of recall sums up what happens in com- munication (psychologists who study memory would argue that memory is the only process that is deﬁned by its failures – memory is about reconstruction). Even though psychology adds to a biomedical model, by accepting the same outcomes it does not challenge it. Individuals exist within a social world and yet health psychology often misses out this world. An emphasis on the interaction between health professionals and patients represents an attempt to examine the cognitions of both these groups in the context of each other (the relationship context). Is asking someone about the interaction actually examining the interaction or is it examining their cognitions about this interaction? This is a classic paper illustrating differences between doctors’ and patients’ knowledge and interpretation. At the time it was written it was central to the contemporary emphasis on a need to acknowledge how uninformed patients were. This paper examines the different models of health professional’s behaviour and emphasizes the role of health professional’s health beliefs. This theoretical paper examines the background to the recent interest in compliance and discusses the relationship between compliance and physician control. It set the scene for much subsequent research and shifted the emphasis from doctor as expert to seeing the consultation as an interaction.
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