By I. Agenak. Northern Arizona University.
Bob M: How does one figure out if their eating patterns have become a terms of binge eating? Crawford: People that binge eat are usually aware that their eating pattern is a problem cheap 400 mg ethambutol fast delivery. They experience extreme feelings of embarrassment order 400mg ethambutol visa, guilt and depression with their eating order 400 mg ethambutol with visa. Binge eating disorder is when someone is binge eating at least two days per week for 6 months. It is different from bulimia in that patients do not attempt to counteract the effects of the binge is they do not induce vomiting, use laxatives, compulsively exercise etc. Bob M: How does one change the behaviors then that are associated with compulsive overeating? Once identified people can begin to work on new ways to deal with these triggers or stress. Bob M: When you say "triggers", what kinds of things can initiate binge eating? Crawford: Trigger generally refer to events that the person experiences as stressful. Examples are: doing poorly on a test, having problems at work, or getting a promotion. Day to day events such as rush hour can also be a trigger. In working with patients, we try to help them begin to differentiate between physical, real, hunger and emotional hunger. Bob M: What then are the most effective treatments for binge eating? Crawford: Treatment for binge eating disorder consists of several components: We provide patients with nutritional counseling to begin to understand their eating pattern and work towards healthy eating patterns. Therapy is also an important component, both with group and individual therapy. Groups help patients to not feel so isolated and begin to work on self acceptance. Individual therapy allows patients to explore the use of food for psychological stress. Also, we evaluate if any of the antidepressants would be beneficial in decreasing the impulses to binge eat. Bob M: Is the treatment done on an inpatient or out-patient basis, for the most part? Crawford: Generally treatment for this population is done on an outpatient basis. Patients may get admitted to the inpatient or day treatment unit if they have a severe depression or they have medical problems that are in need of immediate attention. Bob M: Besides the anti-depressants, are there any other medications that are being used or are on the horizon to control binge eating? Crawford: There are currently a host of new diet pills that are now being marketed or are on the horizon. This medication, however, is not one that I consider to be known to be effective over the long term and its safety is questionable. It was allowed on the market because of the demand for these drugs. Meridia is known to cause elevation of blood pressure. Crawford:frcnb: How can diet pills be helpful to those who eat when not hungry? They are temporary solutions that do not work long term. It is more helpful for individuals to learn coping mechanisms that will allow them to not eat when they are not hungry. People frequently feel uncomfortable after binge eating. This actually is considered to be more of a bulimic pattern than just binge eating. Steve Crawford, of the Center for Eating Disorders at St. We are talking about compulsive overeating and taking questions from the audience. Crawford: Coping mechanisms are ways to try to reduce stress and to feel more comfortable. We try to help patients identify ways that they can take care of themselves. Stress management with breathing exercises can be helpful. Learning to go for a walk or call a friend can be useful alternatives to binge eating. Crawford, they tell me it satisfies an emotional need, but then they feel bad about doing it. And secondly, is the treatment currently available for binge eaters a long-lasting one or are there relapses? Crawford: Breaking the cycle does not occur overnight. One does not make an immediate change to longstanding patterns of behavior. The breaking of the cycle is more of a gradual process with the individual learning over time how to replace the binge eating with other behaviors.
Diabetic ketoacidosis should be treated with insulin ethambutol 800 mg line. Metaglip should be temporarily discontinued in patients undergoing radiologic studies involving intravascular administration of iodinated contrast materials buy 600 mg ethambutol with mastercard, because use of such products may result in acute alteration of renal function order ethambutol 400 mg amex. Lactic acidosis may also occur in association with a number of pathophysiologic conditions, including diabetes mellitus, and whenever there is significant tissue hypoperfusion and hypoxemia. Lactic acidosis is characterized by elevated blood lactate levels ( > 5 mmol/L), decreased blood pH, electrolyte disturbances with an increased anion gap, and an increased lactate/pyruvate ratio. When metformin is implicated as the cause of lactic acidosis, metformin plasma levels > 5 ~lg/mL are generally found. The reported incidence of lactic acidosis in patients receiving metformin hydrochloride is very low (approximately 0. In more than 20,000 patient-years exposure to metformin in clinical trials, there were no reports of lactic acidosis. Reported cases have occurred primarily in diabetic patients with significant renal insufficiency, including both intrinsic renal disease and renal hypoperfusion, often in the setting of multiple concomitant medical/surgical problems and multiple concomitant medications. Patients with congestive heart failure requiring pharmacologic management, in particular those with unstable or acute congestive heart failure who are at risk of hypoperfusion and hypoxemia, are at increased risk of lactic acidosis. The risk of lactic acidosis may, therefore, be significantly decreased by regular monitoring of renal function in patients taking metformin and by use of the minimum effective dose of metformin. In particular, treatment of the elderly should be accompanied by careful monitoring of renal function. METAGLIP treatment should not be initiated in patients ?-U 80 years of age unless measurement of creatinine clearance demonstrates that renal function is not reduced, as these patients are more susceptible to developing lactic acidosis. In addition, METAGLIP should be promptly withheld in the presence of any condition associated with hypoxemia, dehydration, or sepsis. Because impaired hepatic function may significantly limit the ability to clear lactate, METAGLIP should generally be avoided in patients with clinical or laboratory evidence of hepatic disease. Patients should be cautioned against excessive alcohol intake, either acute or chronic, when taking METAGLIP, since alcohol potentiates the effects of metformin hydrochloride on lactate metabolism. In addition, METAGLIP should be temporarily discontinued prior to any intravascular radiocontrast study and for any surgical procedure (see also PRECAUTIONS ). The onset of lactic acidosis often is subtle, and accompanied only by nonspecific symptoms such as malaise, myalgias, respiratory distress, increasing somnolence, and nonspecific abdominal distress. There may be associated hypothermia, hypotension, and resistant bradyarrhythmias with more marked acidosis. METAGLIP should be withdrawn until the situation is clarified. Serum electrolytes, ketones, blood glucose, and if indicated, blood pH, lactate levels, and even blood metformin levels may be useful. Once a patient is stabilized on any dose level of METAGLIP, gastrointestinal symptoms, which are common during initiation of therapy with metformin, are unlikely to be drug related. Later occurrence of gastrointestinal symptoms could be due to lactic acidosis or other serious disease. Levels of fasting venous plasma lactate above the upper limit of normal but less than mmol/L in patients taking METAGLIP do not necessarily indicate impending lactic acidosis and may be explainable by other mechanisms, such as poorly controlled diabetes or obesity, vigorous physical activity, or technical problems in sample handling. Lactic acidosis is a medical emergency that must be treated in a hospital setting. In a patient with lactic acidosis who is taking METAGLIP, the drug should be discontinued immediately and general supportive measures promptly instituted. Because metformin hydrochloride is dialyzable (with a clearance of up to 170 mL/min under good hemodynamic conditions), prompt hemodialysis is recommended to correct the acidosis and remove the accumulated metformin. Such management often results in prompt reversal of symptoms and recovery. This warning is based on the study conducted by the University Group Diabetes Program (UGDP), a long-term prospective clinical trial designed to evaluate the effectiveness of glucose-lowering drugs in preventing or delaying vascular complications in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes. The study involved 823 patients who were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatment groups (Diabetes 19 (Suppl. UGDP reported that patients treated for 5 to 8 years with diet plus a fixed dose of tolbutamide (1. A significant increase in total mortality was not observed, but the use of tolbutamide was discontinued based on the increase in cardiovascular mortality, thus limiting the opportunity for the study to show an increase in overall mortality. Despite controversy regarding the interpretation of these results, the findings of the UGDP study provide an adequate basis for this warning. The patient should be informed of the potential risks and benefits of glipizide and of alternative modes of therapy. Although only 1 drug in the sulfonylurea class (tolbutamide) was included in this study, it is prudent from a safety standpoint to consider that this warning may also apply to other hypoglycemic drugs in this class, in view of their close similarities in mode of action and chemical structure. Macrovascular OutcomesThere have been no clinical studies establishing conclusive evidence of macrovascular risk reduction with Metaglip or any other antidiabetic drug. Metaglip is capable of producing hypoglycemia; therefore, proper patient selection, dosing, and instructions are important to avoid potential hypoglycemic episodes. The risk of hypoglycemia is increased when caloric intake is deficient, when strenuous exercise is not compensated by caloric supplementation, or during concomitant use with other glucose-lowering agents or ethanol. Renal insufficiency may cause elevated drug levels of both glipizide and metformin hydrochloride.
Sexually compulsive individuals have lost the ability to control their sexual behavior discount ethambutol 600 mg with amex. Here are the symptoms of sexual addiction and behaviors that may imply the person is a sexual addict:Having multiple sexual partners or extramarital affairs safe 400 mg ethambutol. Engaging in sex with many anonymous partners or prostitutes purchase ethambutol 800 mg mastercard. Sex addicts treat sexual partners as objects rather than social intimates that are only used for sex. Engaging in excessive masturbation, as often as 10 to 20 times a day. Using chat rooms or online pornography or sex chat phone lines excessively. Engaging in types of sexual behavior that you would not have considered acceptable before. Sometimes more extreme forms of sexual behavior are engaged in, for example pedophilia, bestiality, rape. Generally, a person with a sex addiction gains little satisfaction from the sexual activity and forms no emotional bond with his or her sex partners. In addition, the problem of sex addiction often leads to feelings of guilt and shame. A sex addict also feels a lack of control over the behavior, despite negative consequences (financial, health, social, and emotional). Sexual addiction also is associated with risk-taking. A person with a sex addiction engages in various forms of sexual activity, despite the potential for negative and/or dangerous consequences. For some people, the sex addiction progresses to involve illegal activities, such as exhibitionism (exposing oneself in public), making obscene phone calls, or molestation. However, it should be noted that sex addicts do not necessarily become sex offenders. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Psychiatric Disorders (DSM IV)The treatment focus of sexual addiction is the same as with many addictions, involving counseling, 12-step spiritual recovery programs and medical intervention. Most sex addicts live in denial of their addiction, and treating an addiction is dependent on the person accepting and admitting that he or she has a problem. In many cases, it takes a significant event -- such as the loss of a job, the break-up of a marriage, an arrest, or health crisis -- to force the addict to admit to his or her problem. Treatment of sexual addiction focuses on controlling the addictive behavior and helping the person develop a healthy sexuality. Treating sexual addiction includes education about healthy sexuality, individual counseling, and marital and/or family therapy. Support groups and 12 step recovery programs for people with sexual addictions (i. In some cases, medications used to treat obsessive-compulsive disorder may be used to curb the compulsive nature of the sex addiction. The doctor may recommend medication to suppress sexual appetite. Drugs like Depo-Lupron (normally used to fight prostate cancer) and Depo-Provera (used for contraception purposes) lower androgen levels and, thus, sex drive. Because sexual addiction is usually accompanied by other disorders like depression, the patient will often take these medications along with antidepressants. When conventional methods fail, a sex addict might consider enrolling at a residential treatment facility. Programs vary in length and usually run about $800 to $1000 a day. According to The Society for the Advancement of Sexual Health, thousands of recovering addicts know that recovery is a process that works when these principles are followed. Willingness to learn from others in recovery in sexual addictionTwelve-step support groups, professional counseling, and medication, if necessary. The Society for the Advancement of Sexual HealthIn-depth information on compulsive shopping aka over-shopping or shopping addiction; including causes, symptoms and treatment. Compulsive shopping or over-shopping is similar to other addictive behaviors and has some of the same characteristics as problem drinking ( alcoholism ), gambling addiction and overeating addictions. And while Shopping Addiction is not a recognized mental health or medical disorder, many mental health professionals believe it should be. Compulsive shopping and spending generally makes a person feel worse. According to Engs, shopping addiction or over-shopping tends to affect more women than men. Holiday seasons can trigger shopping binges among those who are not compulsive the rest of the year. Many shopping addicts go on binges all year long and may be compulsive about buying certain items, such as shoes, kitchen items or clothing; some will buy anything. Engs says that women with this compulsive disorder often have racks of clothes and possessions with the price tags still attached which have never been used. If their family or friends begin to complain about their purchases, they will often hide the things they buy. Because they can not pay their bills, their credit rating suffers. They have collection agencies attempting to get what is owed, and may have legal, social and relationship problems. Shopaholics may attempt to hide their problem by taking on an extra job to pay for bills.
Mary Ellen Copeland: Being in touch with people through internet groups and groups in your community are very good ways cheap ethambutol 400 mg with visa. A few ways to connect with a group in your community is to call your county mental health department generic ethambutol 800mg, a local psychiatric hospital order ethambutol 800 mg without a prescription, or look for therapists who work with depression and manic depression. Discovering the things you need to do for yourself every day to keep yourself feeling well;Which triggers and early warning signs to watch for;What to do when these things come up, to help yourself feel better;How to know when things are getting really bad and what to do to help yourself then; andA crisis plan that tells others how they can help you, when your symptoms are very severe. Should caffeine intake be limited or totally taken out of the diet? Mary Ellen Copeland: I think each person needs to find out for themselves, what foods make them feel better and what foods to avoid. For instance, I have found that dairy foods make me feel worse. Most people say that sugar makes them feel much worse. I suggest a diet that consists of at least five servings a day of vegetables and fruit, six or seven servings of whole grain foods (i. Mary Ellen Copeland: If you are considering electric shock therapy, learn all you can about it before you consent. I think there are many simple, safe, and effective ways to relieve symptoms without resorting to this treatment. David: By the way, we are arranging a chat conference on ECT in October. We are going to have some people on, who have undergone ECT to talk about their experiences. One was not positive, the other is very happy with the result. Is it okay to take one piece and the next in excess? Just playing with your concepts in my thinker-ticker. Mary Ellen Copeland: I think this is the kind of thing you have to sort out for yourself. However, I personally believe in working with the less invasive kinds of remedies as much as possible. Mary Ellen, thank you for coming tonight and being our guest. Mary Ellen Copeland: It has been a pleasure to be here. David: And thank you to everyone in the audience for coming and participating. George Lynn , psychotherapist and author of Survival Strategies for Parenting Children with Bipolar Disorder was our guest. The discussion focused on how parents of bipolar children can best cope and effectively deal with the mood issues, behavioral problems and learning disabilities that are inherent with this mood disorder. He has written Survival Strategies for Parenting Children with Bipolar Disorder. I have a psychotherapy practice in Bellevue, WA and work with adults and kids with Bipolar Disorder, Aspergers, ADD (Attention Deficit Disorder), and other neuropsyche issues. David: In your practice, what are you finding to be the most difficult issues facing parents of bipolar children? George Lynn: The most difficult issues are the isolation of parents, the lack of understanding by schools and doctors, and the issues of the bipolar child. David: When you say "isolation of the parents," what do you mean by that? George Lynn: Kids with the rage, psychotic manifestations, chronic paranoia, and learning issues that come with Bipolar Disorder serve to distance other adults from the family. People who do not have kids like this do not understand but are often full of judgments about what needs to be done. Then parents start showing signs of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder and no one understands why. David: I asked that question because we have many parents of bipolar children write us saying they feel all alone and that there is no support system for them. What would you suggest for dealing with the lonliness and isolation? First thing is to tell people who can listen what is going on. And deliberately cultivate your own interests, even if these do not involve your child. David: What about dealing with the feelings that "you are the only one going through this? I tell people in my workshops who are computer un-savvy to get one and learn how to use it to link up to others. And attend local meetings of ChADD and other groups who will have parents with kids on the spectrum. David: I remember seeing a program on parents of bipolar kids about a year ago. It seemed very stressful to be dealing, day in and day out, with the behavioral problems associated with the mood disorder. How does a parent constantly cope with that, or how can they better cope?
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