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Semester exams: The “A” rumalaya 60pills with amex, “B” and “C” exams are all written exams that are conducted in the same format as the control tests order rumalaya 60pills amex. If a student fails the “C” semester exam the department provides him/her a chance to prove his/her knowledge of molecular biology in an oral exam in front of an official examination committee rumalaya 60 pills sale. Semester examination tests: After the semester students who are not eligible for or decline the offered grade proceed to semester examination tests. Improvement of the grade (or offered grade): One may choose and is allowed to take one improvement exam for a fee in the form of a semester exam. The policy of the institute is that one may not worsen the already achieved grade. Please follow the announcements of the department for reviewing the results of the control examination tests. Semester points will be automatically erased of those students, who break the rules of test writings. Seminar: Introduction, preparation for labs, signing up for Seminar: Material related to lectures 11-12. Practical: See schedule on the web page (labs 1 through 4 in small groups, rotary system). Requirements Aim of the course: This is an intermediate level university course on cell biology. It gives an overview of the functional anatomy of the higher eukaryotic animal cells with examples of the paradigmatic molecular mechanisms. The students successfully completing the course will have acquired an active professional vocabulary sufficient to study biochemistry, molecular biology, genetics, histology and physiology, as a minimal requirement. The "inductive" philosophy of teaching, the efforts to make connections between phenomena belonging to different chapters and the organism level context several key mechanisms are discussed in will give a broad and at the same time deep understanding to the more demanding students of the course. Short description of the course: It covers the basic anatomy of eukaryotic animal cells describing the structure and function of the cellular organelles. On the other hand it covers membrane transport, intracellular transport processes, cell communication, cell division (mitosis and meiosis), cell cycle control, cell death and cell diffrentiation processes. Requirements: Lectures: Attendance of lectures is highly indispensable for acquiring the knowledge required to pass! To further facilitate attendance, an attendance bonus system was introduced also in the case of Cell Biology lectures: If a student is present in every lecture, he/she automatically receives 5 bonus points which is added to the result of the final exam score. The student will lose all these (5) bonus points, if he/she is caught missing any one of the lectures at these random checkings. Seminars: In the seminars, students should ask their questions related to the topic of the lectures discussed (see final timetable of lectures and seminars that will be announced on the week 1. Besides, every student (two in each group in every seminar) will give a short presentation on the topic of one of the lectures discussed in the seminar. No lecture book can be signed without getting at least 1 point for the presentation. If the student receives 0 point, he/she must ask for another topic and present it at another seminar. Students ending up without any point for the presentation will have to answer assay questions from their presentation topic in the time of the second self- control test. This also involves that they do not have a possibility to take the second self-control test and collect bonus points or to get an offered grade. If a student fails on this written examination, it means that he/she does not get a signature and cannot take the Cell Biology Final Exam. You have to read the relevant background information from your textbook and make the topic understandable to your fellow students. You should use the lecture material available at the cell biology website to make your presentation easy to follow. You are expected to be ready to present at least 10 slides of the lecture, from those that contain figures/pictures, rather than just explanatory text. Only exceptionally good presentations that clearly present good summaries of the lectures are awarded with 3 points. It is the professor / tutor in the seminar who alone decides the number of bonus points awarded, based on his/her own judgment. Including extra material obtained through the student’s own research in textbooks or the internet will be appreciated, but will not substitute for a clear and detailed knowledge of the lecture/textbook material. Labs: Completing all labs, and writing up the results and their interpretation in a lab log book on the spot is required. The average value of the lab bonus points is added to the exam points at the end of the semester. Only medical or official excuses are accepted, after showing the appropriate documents. After completing the lab, the lab tutor should sign on the cover of the log book, certifying your presence at the lab and sign separately for the acceptance of your work. You are eligible for this second signature only if you know what and why you did during the lab and what the result was. You should obtain these two signatures and the grade at the end of the lab and no later. This also involves that they do not have a possibility to take the second self-control test and collect bonus points or to get an offered grade. If a student fails on this written examination, it means that he or she does not get a signature and cannot take the Cell Biology Final Exam. Reading source for the lab and lab schedule: A Cell Biology lab manual written by the members of the department is provided in the Book Store (In Theoretical Building). Lab schedule: Small groups (subgroups) consist of 3-7 people for doing the various labs in a rotary system are formed in the first seminar. If you missed the first seminar you will be put into a subgroup where you fit and you should check your assignment with your fellow students.

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Prevention is therefore of paramount importance rumalaya 60pills mastercard, and insight into the pathogenesis is essential to the development of appropriate interventions discount 60 pills rumalaya with mastercard. Unfortunately buy cheap rumalaya 60 pills on line, despite a wealth of experimental evidence in animal models, there are so far no specific therapeutic interventions in humans, beyond avoidance of hemodynamic instability, minimization of nephrotoxin exposure, and best sup- portive care. Key Notes • Etiologic factors for the development of acute kidney injury are ischemia and reperfusion, inflammation, and toxic injury. Acute renal failure in critically ill patients: a multina- tional, multicenter study. Renal blood flow and function during recovery from experimental septic acute kidney injury. Doppler resistive index to reflect regulation of renal vascular tone during sepsis and acute kidney injury. Renal resistive index better predicts the occurrence of acute kidney injury than cystatin C. Diagnostic accuracy of Doppler renal resistive index for reversibility of acute kidney injury in critically ill patients. Measurement of renal blood flow by phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging during septic acute kidney injury: a pilot investigation. Increasing mean arterial pressure in patients with septic shock: effects on oxygen variables and renal function. Disruption of renal peritubular blood flow in lipopolysaccharide-induced renal failure: role of nitric oxide and caspases. The role of renal hypoperfusion in development of renal microcirculatory dysfunction in endotoxemic rats. Effects of sepiapterin infusion on renal oxygenation and early acute renal injury after suprarenal aortic clamping in rats. Upregulation of renal inducible nitric oxide syn- thase during human endotoxemia and sepsis is associated with proximal tubule injury. Evidence of oxidative stress and mitochon- drial respiratory chain dysfunction in an in vitro model of sepsis-induced kidney injury. Coexpressed nitric oxide synthase and apical β1 integrins influ- ence tubule cell adhesion after cytokine-induced injury. Alkaline phosphatase: a possible treatment for sepsis-associated acute kidney injury in critically ill patients. Alkaline phosphatase for treatment of sepsis- induced acute kidney injury: a prospective randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Distinct pathophysiologic mechanismas of septic acute kid- ney injury: role of immune suppression and renal tubular cell apoptosis in murine model of septic acute kidney injury. Effects of specific interleukin-1β converting enzyme inhibi- tor on ischemic acute renal failure in murine models. A unified theory of sepsis-induced acute kidney injury: inflammation, microcirculatory dysfunction, bioenergetics, and the tubular cell adaptation to injury. Histopathology of septic shock induced acute kidney injury: apoptosis and leukocytic infiltration. Early detection of postoperative acute kidney injury by Doppler renal resistive index in cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. Preservation of peritubular capillary endothelial integ- rity and increasing pericytes may be critical to recovery from postischemia acute kidney injury. Effects of tetrahydrobiopterin on endothelial dysfunc- tion in rats with ischemic acute renal failure. A small molecule C5a receptor antagonist pro- tects kidneys from ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats. Interleukin-18 binding protein transgenic mice are protected against ischemic kidney injury. Guanosine supplementation reduces apoptosis and protects renal function in the setting of ischemic injury. Single injection of naked plasmid encoding hepatocyte growth factor prevents cell death and ameliorates acute renal failure in mice. Tight junction proteins and oxidative stress in heavy metals induced nephrotoxicity. Prevalence and risk factors for aminoglycoside nephrotoxicity in intensive care units. Cocaine-induced acute interstitial nephritis: a case report and review of the literature. Acidity of fuids including that of plasma is determined by their hydrogen concentration or [H ], often con-+ fusingly expressed as its negative logarithm or pH. Acid–base analysis often yields important diagnostic information, and its physiol- ogy represents the crossroads between electrolyte balance and the respiratory system. The last century gave rise to three commonly used approaches to acid–base prob- lems in clinical medicine. In 1908, Henderson described his equation for carbonic acid equilibrium, which was rewritten in logarithmic form by Hasselbalch in 1917. Recently, the Stewart approach has become increasingly popular, especially in the setting of critical care medicine. This chapter will discuss all of these approaches and use their context to consider renal acid–base handling. Na , K and Cl are the most important+ + − examples, but others include Mg , Ca , sulfate and lactate. Carbonate ion formation equilibrium: ë û ë û ë û ë 3 û 5 Acid–Base 59 dissociated. Balanced salt solutions contain variable amounts of negative ions that are metab- olized, such as lactate or acetate.

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These changes are charac- responded to treatment with topical keto- teristic of uveitis not complicated by hy- conazole (courtesy of S 60pills rumalaya free shipping. Phitisis bulbi with tion with topical steroid medication was wrinkling of the lid margins are also evi- slow and several synechiae remained generic rumalaya 60pills visa. In this case buy rumalaya 60 pills mastercard, the contralateral An adult male cockatiel was presented with a three-week history of ocular discharge eye was unaffected, the bird’s behavior was normal and surgical removal of the and scratching of the face. A severe pan- ophthalmitis was noted on physical exami- cataract was not attempted (courtesy of K. The bird was tillating appearance of the cataract, indi- placed on systemic and ophthalmic antibi- cating some resorption. Extracapsular enucleation was performed six days after cataract extraction was performed and the initial presentation. Avian Pathol 15:687-695, Am Vet Med Assoc 183:1232-1233, men einer konjuntivitis unbekannter 53. J Amazon parrots (Amazona aestiva) he avian heart is divided into four complete chambers and is located midway in the tho- racic cavity in an indention in the sternum C H A P T E R T 50,91 parallel to the long axis of the body. The left ventricle is heavily walled and is about two to three times thicker than 27 the right. The right ventricle works as a volume pump and responds rapidly to an increased workload by dilation and hypertrophy. Rigor mortis may not occur if severe degenerative disease of the myocardium is present. The normal pericardial sac is clear and in contact with the epicardium circumferentially and the mediasti- nal pleura dorsally (see Color 13). A normal bird should have a small quantity of clear to slightly yellow fluid in the pericardial sac (see Color 14). Ritchie their internal structure is simple, lacking the T-tu- bules found in mammals. The small surface area precludes the need for a complex T-tubule system for excitation to occur. The increased cardiac output requires a higher cally separates the atria from the ventricles by pene- arterial pressure to produce higher blood flow rates. There are also fibers running to in general have a bigger heart than larger birds. Electrical conduction in Purkinje fibers is The aorta in birds is derived embryologically from about five times faster than in normal cardiac muscle the right fourth arterial arch and right dorsal aorta cells and hence the conduction system plays an im- and therefore the ascending aorta curves to the right portant role in regulating myocardial contraction. This structure can After transmission of the electrical impulses through be clearly seen radiographically on a ventrodorsal the ventricular conduction system, all areas of the projection. Blood is returned to the heart from the ventricles are activated in a coordinated fashion. Birds have a mean electrical axis that is negative, while the mean electrical axis in dogs is positive. This difference can be explained by the fact that in birds, the depolarization wave of the ventricles begins subepicardially and spreads through the myocar- dium to the endocardium, while in the dog, depolari- Evaluating the Avian Heart zation of the ventricles starts subendocardially. Electrical impulses are transported 1726 mixed avian species necropsied in one zoologi- along ordinary muscle fibers in the interatrial sep- cal collection. Subtle interatrial septum or the caudodorsal part of the murmurs are easiest to detect when birds are under interventricular septum. Auscultation of the heart can best be per- cardiovascular shunt as the cause of severe dyspnea formed on the left and right ventral thorax. The proce- or pulmonary fluid accumulation may cause muffled dure is performed by injecting a bolus dose of con- lung sounds or rales when a bird is auscultated over trast medium into the catheterized basilic vein. Of the imaging techniques, echocardiograms gener- Mild stress, such as occurs in the veterinary exami- ally provide the most diagnostic information. Echo- nation room or following restraint, may cause a bird’s cardiography was used successfully to detect valvu- heart rate to increase substantially (two to three lar endocarditis on the aortic valve of a four-year-old times normal). Staphylo- stress factors, drug exposure, toxins, diet, percent coccus was isolated from the vegetative lesion, which body fat and blood pressure can all alter the avian was seen as a large mass using this technique. As a rule, the heart rate in a bird that is small birds, the echocardiographic image of the heart being restrained is higher than the heart rate ob- is best obtained by sweeping through the liver. Color tained in the same bird if the rate had been deter- flow doppler was used to demonstrate mitral regur- mined using telemetry. Radiographic detection of cardiovascular abnormali- ties may be difficult, although an enlarged cardiac It was demonstrated in 1949 that the negative mean silhouette or microcardia can often be visualized. Other radiographic changes that suggest cardiac disease include congestion of Despite its great clinical applicability, electrocardiog- pulmonary vessels, pulmonary edema, pleural effu- raphy has received relatively little attention from sion, hepatomegaly and ascites. This might be due to the scarcity of electrocardiographic refer- Non-selective angiocardiography with rapid se- ence values in companion birds. To the authors’ quence serial radiographs has been used to confirm knowledge these values have been established only impaired cardiac function in a racing pigeon (Figure in racing pigeons, African Grey Parrots and Amazon 27. The eyes were glazed and partially closed, the ulnar vein refill time was two seconds, and the skin on the toes would stay elevated for several seconds when pinched. The lateral radiograph indicated microcardia (indicative of dehydration) and gaseous dis- tention of the proventriculus (open arrows), which is common in birds that are anesthetized or are severely dyspneic. A single rapid intravenous bolus of contrast agent was administered via a catheter into the cutaneous ulnar vein of a normal Green-winged Macaw.

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